When social entrepreneurs launch businesses with the goal of creating impact, they have to determine how their business model connects to their mission. They must decide what the business does on a daily basis, how the business makes money, and how the operations and cost structure relate to the impact.
An organization’s logic model describes its intended impact, along with the intervention the organization’s leaders have chosen to achieve that intended impact. Entrepreneurs often use tools such as the Business Model Canvas to map out their activities, value proposition, and target audiences. However, an understanding of how costs and impact value are created is best developed using what is known as a logic model.
Logic models have traditionally been used by nonprofits and international aid organizations, but the convergence of social impact and business has seen them used by organizations such as the Impact Management Project to organize the costs and activities that make up a social enterprise.
Logic models lay out:
- Inputs — the infrastructure, materials, and labor needed to make the organization run
- Outputs — the products and/or services the organization creates, as well as the externalities, or side effects and unintended products of their work
- Outcomes — the results the organization produces, from long-term stability for its employees to increased traffic and economic growth for its neighborhood
For example, a new organization might determine that their mission is to help people with developmental disabilities become independent. They look up research on the most important skills to teach people with disabilities, and review outcomes from similar programs around the country and the world. To achieve their mission, they choose as their social enterprise an ice cream shop, hiring and offering job skills training to adults with disabilities.
And now for one of Ted’s food service analogies…
In many ways, this ice cream shop is very similar to a conventional for-profit business. They rent a space that meets the needs of an ice cream shop and market to the public. They purchase large equipment such as mixers and freezers, and buy supplies including ingredients and packaging. They handle cash and follow health code requirements. They serve delicious ice cream to customers.
However, there are a few unique expenses that the social enterprise ice cream shop has to account for. Those include the cost of training materials, staff time and gas money to give employees rides home or to appointments, and other concerns specific to the population that the business serves.
One of the goals when creating a logic model — and our goal at Ecotone when we help social enterprises develop their logic models — is to account for those extra expenses and find sustainable ways to fund them. Laying out inputs, outputs, and outcomes in one blueprint allows organizations to attribute their impact to specific inputs. That, in turn, allows them to look for ways to fund those inputs so they can continue growing their impact.
Get the basics:
- Using a Logic Model, Pell Institute: http://toolkit.pellinstitute.org/evaluation-guide/plan-budget/using-a-logic-model/
- Logic Models, University of Wisconsin Extension: https://fyi.uwex.edu/programdevelopment/logic-models/
- An Award-Winning Recipe for Logic Models: https://medium.com/@socialtrendspot/an-award-winning-recipe-for-logic-models-9412f8538eab
- Impact Management Project: http://www.impactmanagementproject.com/
- W.K. Kellogg Foundation Logic Model Development Guide: https://www.wkkf.org/resource-directory/resource/2006/02/wk-kellogg-foundation-logic-model-development-guide